Health researchers have found that dramatic spurts of both physical and intellectual growth happen during the teenage years. As the brain changes, some brain functions form at different rates. Drug and alcohol experimentation is often highest during these critical formative years. Teens are more likely to perceive social benefits of drug use such as being accepted among peers or feeling more social than they are to evaluate the negative effects.
Individuals at different stages of the addictive process are influenced by different motives, social groups and other factors. The results reported in this paper suggest that anti-drug and alcohol campaigns can differentially impact upon individuals depending upon the stage in the addictive process that they belong to.
Specifically, the campaign examined in this study appears to have had more impact upon non-users rather than users in terms of ad recall, ad evaluation and perceived effectiveness.
Much of this attention has traditionally been focused on interdiction whereby governments attempt to stop the flow of illicit drugs from entering jurisdictions or attempt to prevent drug dealers from selling drugs through vigorous law enforcement.
Interdiction essentially tries to address the supply side of the drug and alcohol abuse problem. In recent years, some governments have also attempted to address the demand side of the drug and alcohol abuse problem. Attempts to reduce the demand for illicit drugs and alcohol typically involve marketing and promotion activities designed to dissaude individuals from using drugs and alcohol.
Such attempts to reduce or eliminate consumption of a product represents countermarketing in which the goal is to designate the product as intrinsically unwholesome. In contrast, demarketing attempts to reduce demand for a product without discrediting the product itself Kotler, The effects of countermarketing efforts on drug and alcohol abuse have been reviewed by Bandy and President who looked at two decades of anti-drug and anti-alcohol advertising campaigns.
Bandy and President attempted to ascertain whether such campaigns do in fact accomplish their objectives of reduced drug and alcohol use. Generally, the result of their review was inconclusive.
One reason cited for this inconclusiveness is the reliance on user self-reports which are thought to have questionable validity because of potential under-reporting of usage. These stages included trial, non-addictive use, addictive use, cessation and relapse back into addictive use.
The central thesis of DePaulo et al is that the effectiveness of any drug and alcohol related marketing effort will vary according to stage at which particular individuals belong. Modifications to the Lettieri model included the addition of non-user s. Described below are the six stages of this adapted model Stage 1: Usage Not Contemplated The first stage is comprised of non-usage with no usage being contemplated.
Everyone will start at this stage and remain at this stage until adolescence at which time some individuals will move onto the next stage.
Individuals in this stage have not tried drugs or alcohol but have seriously considered trying drugs. Drug and alcohol abuse prevention programs are typically geared to this stage. Trial This stage includes the initial use of a substance. The novice is typically introduced to the substance by a more experienced peer Kandel and Maloff, Because of the gateway effect trial o.
As DePaulo et al note, the use of some substances does not inexorably lead to the use of other substances. Social drinkers do not automatically become heroin users. Light Use Many individuals can consume addictive substances without becoming addicted. Social drinkers do not necessarily become alcoholics.
For some substances such as alcohol, light use may be acceptable while light use of other substances like heroin and cocaine is not acceptable. This stage man be skipped if usage after trial is sufficiently heavy.Family Factors and Peer Influence in Drug Abuse: A Study in Rehabilitation Centre.
International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Drugs have been around for ages and it comes in many different forms amount of involvement with and reinforcement from individuals who. There are also recovery high schools where teens can go to high school and earn their diploma, while simultaneously working on their recovery from drug addiction or alcoholism.
Sources. National Institute on Drug Abuse. (). DrugFacts: High School and Youth Trends.
NIDA for Teens: National Institute on Drug Abuse for Teens. (). Adolescent Involvement in Alcohol and Drug Use. Deirdre Ruane. M.A. Sociology(Mode II) Summer Secondly I would like to thank those teenagers for Description of drugs.
6 A history of drug use. 8.
Teenagers—Alcohol use—United States. 2. Alcoholism— ner’s reports document high rates of alcohol involvement in fatal accidents. For instance, a study estimated that more than half the victims of fatal car crashes tested posi-tive for alcohol use. In addition, approximately 35 percent.
Family history of alcoholism or drug addiction Whether a person decides to use alcohol or drugs is a choice, influenced by their environment--peers, family, and availability.
But, once a person uses alcohol or drugs, the risk of developing alcoholism or drug dependence is largely influenced by genetics. The illicit use of drugs, including alcohol, by teenagers has been extensively studied and documented. It is not uncommon for teenagers to be involved in illicit drug use before exhibiting signs and symptoms of .