Neolithic Revolution Centres of originas numbered by Nikolai Vavilov in the s. Area 3 gray is no longer recognised as a centre of origin, and Papua New Guinea area P, orange was identified more recently. At least 11 separate regions of the Old and New World were involved as independent centers of origin.
References Agricultural extension work has a venerable, albeit largely unrecorded, history. It is a significant social innovation, an important force in agricultural change, which has been created and recreated, adapted and developed over the centuries.
Its evolution extends over nearly four thousand years, although its modem forms are largely a product of the past two centuries.
Today, the organizations and personnel engaged in agricultural extension encompass a diverse range of socially sanctioned and legitimate activities which seek to enlarge and improve the abilities of farm people to adopt more appropriate and often new practices and to adjust to changing conditions and societal needs.
The term "extension" The use of the word "extension" derives from an educational development in England during the second half of the nineteenth century.
Arounddiscussions began in the two ancient universities of Oxford and Cambridge about how they could serve the educational needs, near to their homes, of the rapidly growing populations in the industrial, urban area. It was not until that a first practical attempt was made in what was designated "university extension," but the activity developed quickly to become a well-established movement before the end of the century.
Initially, most of the lectures given were on literary and social topics, but by the s agricultural subjects were being covered by peripatetic lecturers in rural areas Jones, The growth and success of this work in Britain influenced the initiation of similar activity elsewhere, especially in the United States.
There, in many states, comparable out-of-college lectures were becoming established by the s True, During the first two decades of this century, the extramural work of the land-grant colleges, concerned with serving the needs of farm families, was to expand dramatically and become formally organized; but the use of the term "extension" continued and has persisted as the designation for the work.
The overt use of the notion of "extending" relevant and useful information to the adult population at large, however, predates the university extension movement. Earlier in the nineteenth century, a British politician, Lord Henry Brougham, an influential advocate of formal eduction for the poor and of mass adult education, founded the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge in Its objective was "imparting useful information to all classes of the community, particularly to such as are unable to avail themselves of experienced teachers, or may prefer learning by themselves.
During its twenty years' existence, agricultural topics were well covered in the society's publications. Similar, albeit short-lived, societies were also established before in several other European countries, India, China, Malaysia, and the United States in Virginia Grobel, ; Smith, The distant origins The dissemination of relevant information and advice to farmers, however, has a long if chequered history prior to the emergence of modem forms of agricultural extension in the nineteenth century.
The first known example was in Mesopotamia roughly, present-day Iraq around B. Archaeologists have unearthed clay tablets of the time on which were inscribed advice on watering crops and getting rid of rats - important for mitigating any potential loss of taxation revenue from farmers Ahmed,as quoted in Bne Saad, Some hieroglyphs on Egyptian columns also gave advice on avoiding crop damage and loss of life from the Nile's floods.
An important advance was the beginning of agricultural writings. Though few have survived, the earliest were written during the ancient Greek and Phoenician civilizations, but some of them were adapted by Roman writers. From the second century B.History of Agriculture There are many options for those wishing to study an agriculture-based degree due to the nature of the breadth of the subject.
With the exploration of modern concepts such as GM, environmental change, sustainability as well as the business and scientific sides, potential students are spoiled for choice for employment and degree options. Agricultural economics, study of the allocation, distribution, and utilization of the resources used, along with the commodities produced, by farming.
Agricultural economics plays a role in the economics of development, for a continuous level of farm surplus is one of the wellsprings of.
France is the most visited country in the world each year and those who choose to visit the country will certainly leave and head back home with a fond appreciation of the nation.
Another important fact about France is that it is high on the list of best places in the world to attend university.
2 Indian Agriculture – an introduction Agriculture has been the backbone of the Indian economy and it will continue to remain so for a long time.
Introduction to Agriculture Course Outline Description: This course is an introductory course designed to expose students to different facets of FFA and the agriculture industry. Students will gain knowledge in animal science, plant science, leadership skills, public speaking, FFA opportunities, and.
The History of Agriculture Prehistory. Early civilization can be considered a boom time in agricultural science and technology. Around BC (7, p) which means that the agriculture centered on a very small part of the country.