The inner thighs in suspected sexual assault 5. Further details of these innocent lesions can be obtained from standard dermatology and paediatric texts. Restrictive fascial planes prevent the accumulation of extravasated blood. It should also be noted that extravasated blood follows the path of fascial planes and is affected by gravity, therefore the site of the bruise is not necessarily indicative of the locus of impact e.
Key Points Wound assessment is a very important and often overlooked part of the assessment and examination process of the avian wildlife casualty. Clinical examination should involve a systematic head to toe approach.
Only those birds who will make a rapid recovery should be treated. Euthanasia should be considered for birds with complex wounds, such as those with significant infection or where the wound is likely to result in a significant loss of function.
Abstract Avian casualties can present with a wide range of injuries. Careful assessment of each case is necessary in order to identify those birds requiring urgent euthanasia on humane grounds and those who would benefit from care and rehabilitation.
This two-part article will discuss the assessment of wounds in the avian wildlife casualty, patient triage and first aid; appropriate wound management plans for specific wounds will be discussed in part 2.
Introduction Wound assessment is only one small part of the overall assessment of the avian casualty. It is, however, a very important and often overlooked part of the assessment and examination process.
Assessment Initial assessment The purpose of Assessment of haemostasis initial assessment and examination is to identify those injuries requiring immediate attention. The key elements of this process are twofold: History taking is often difficult due to the lack of available information.
The right questions must be asked and the following information recorded: It is therefore essential that as much factual information as possible is recorded. It is important to obtain the name and contact details of the finder should more precise information be required at a later date.
It is not unusual for a third party to transport the bird to the hospital and they may not pass on accurate details necessitating a follow-up call. Many birds are territorial and will need to be returned to their own territories when ready for release.
Reference to an Ordnance Survey map will identify the exact location of where the bird was found. This can then be tied in with other information such as the proximity of roads, power lines and train lines. Useful clues may be found within the history that will help structure the examination so that important wounds and other injuries are not missed.
Caught-by-cat CBC birds are, for example, likely to have small, hard-to-find, puncture wounds.
They may also have other injuries or problems that have caused them to be caught in the first place. Similarly, swans Cygnus that have flown into power lines may have burn injuries, which may not be immediately obvious. The initial examination should be brief but thorough and aim to identify any injuries requiring immediate first aid, veterinary attention or euthanasia.
Fluid therapy should be administered to all avian casualties at the time of this examination and the bird then rested. A more detailed examination can be performed an hour or so later.
Clinical examination A full clinical examination should be performed once the bird's condition has stabilised.
A systematic head to toe approach should be followed. The majority of wounds will be well hidden by the bird's feathering. In the plumage covered regions of most birds, the contour feathers are confined to discrete tracts or pterylae, separated by featherless tracts or apteria .
Use can be made of these apteria to help visualise the skin. Puncture wounds can be particularly hard to find.
In such cases careful palpation will help to identify blood deposits on the deeper feathering, which may be the only sign of an underlying wound.
The examination needs to be thorough and systematic if all wounds are to be identified and treated appropriately. The following description is the author's preferred approach with examples taken from particular species-specific problems: Examine the beak, oral cavity, eyes, ears and head. Bruising of the oral or ocular mucous membranes may be the only evidence of a head trauma.
Lacerations to the scalp are common in Eurasian buzzards Buteo buteo Figure 1 but these may be hidden beneath the feathers. Such injuries probably arise as the result of territorial disputes  and are discussed further in part 2, under wound management. Figure 1 - Figure 1: European buzzard Buteo buteo with a severe scalping injury.A Systematic Literature Review on Hypodysfibrinogenaemia and Report of A New Fgb Missense Mutation A.
Casini 1, *, T. Brungs 2, C. Lavenu Bombled 2, M. Neerman‐Arbez 3, P. de Moerloose 1. 1 Angiology and Haemostasis, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; 2 Service d'Hématologie Biologique, Hôpital Bicêtre, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France; 3 Department.
bleeding assessment tool: a standardized questionnaire and a proposal for a new bleeding score for inherited bleeding disorders. journal of thrombosis and haemostasis, 8: – supplementary material to the official communication surgical haemostasis antifibrinolytics.
Key Points. Wound assessment is a very important and often overlooked part of the assessment and examination process of the avian wildlife casualty. Edited by.
Kathleen P. Freeman, DVM, BS, MS, PhD, DipECVCP, FRCPath, MRCVS, RCVS, is an American-trained veterinary clinical pathologist who works in the UK as a senior veterinary clinical pathologist for IDEXX ashio-midori.com Freeman is also a consultant for the Veterinary Information Network and a founding Diplomate of the European College of Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ECVCP).
Oregon Health & Science University. OHSU is dedicated to improving the health and quality of life for all Oregonians through excellence, innovation and leadership in health care, education and research. In patients with cirrhosis, in view of the conflicting results previously provided in separate studies, on the one hand by TEG and ROTEM assays, 1–3 and on the other hand by TGT and coagulation factor levels, 4–12 an overall investigation of haemostasis was deemed necessary with a special focus on the limitations of ROTEM assessment.