Authentic deliberation is deliberation among decision-makers that is free from distortions of unequal political power, such as power a decision-maker obtained through economic wealth or the support of interest groups. Deliberative democracy can be practiced by decision-makers in both representative democracies and direct democracies.
Political Theory Readings Bohman, James, ed. Pluralism, Complexity, and Democracy. MIT Press,pp. James Bohman complains that most democratic theorists talk about public deliberation, but do not bother to describe what it actually is. He then seeks to do so himself by explaining "what makes deliberation public, what it can really accomplish, and when it is actually successful.
Bohman discusses the obstacles to public deliberation in large, diverse societies. Essays on Reason and Politics.
Edited by James Bohman and William Rehg. Josh Cohen sets out to counter the argument that reasonable pluralism reduces democracy to a purely procedural process that is devoid of values-driven decision making.
Rather, he proposes, reasonable pluralism, combined with a deliberative approach to democracy introduces the values of equality and liberty, as captured by principles of deliberative inclusion, the common good, and participation.
Politics, Policy and Political Science.
Cambridge University Press,pp. John Dryzek attacks the ideas of instrumental rationality and objectivism as inadequate concepts to drive resolution of the world's problems.
He argues that a "discursive and democratic rationality" must be employed to "cure" the world's political ills. Dryzek criticizes a number of other political theorists' perspectives, including Weber, Horkheimer, Adorno, Habermas, and Arendt.
Fung, Archon, and Erik Olin Wright, eds. Institutional Innovations in Empowered Participatory Governance. Fung and Wright are concerned with the apparent weakening of democracy as governments grow and citizens' direct participation in government declines as decisions are increasingly made through representatives.
They argue for the potential to deepen democracy by creating institutions that demand the direct participation of citizens and give four real-world examples of such.
They discuss the principles that guide the creation of such institutions and link them to deliberative democratic practice. Essays on Democracy and Disagreement. Edited by Stephen Macedo. Oxford University Press,pp. Jane Mansbridge expands the theory of deliberative democracy to include everyday talk.
This is the talk that takes place outside of formal political institutions, but which nevertheless shapes social meanings and norms and influences public moral judgments.
Examples are talk in the media, talk between constituents and elected representatives and talk among political activists. Mansbridge contends that everyday talk among citizens is a significant factor for evaluating the quality of deliberative democracy. Princeton University Press,pp.
Ian Shapiro offers a critical assessment of contemporary answers to the questions, What should we expect from democracy? And how likely is it that democracies will live up to those expectations?
Shapiro exposes the shortcomings of aggregative and deliberative democratic ideals, according to which the goal of democracy should be to represent the general will for the common good.
Shapiro proposes that instead the goal of democracy should be to minimize domination by managing power relations. Yale University Press,pp.
Michael Walzer argues that there is not enough disagreement in the United States over the theory of deliberative democracy, or its "contexts and necessary complements. Edited by James Fishkin and Peter Laslett. Blackwell Publishing,pp. Iris Marion Young sets up a dialogue between two idealized characters, an activist and a deliberative democrat, in order to illustrate the limitations of deliberation in promoting justice.
The deliberative democrat challenges the activist's methods demonstrations, boycotts, sit-ins, etc. Young concludes that while deliberation has its place in democracy, "the best democratic theory and practice will affirm both activism and deliberation while recognizing the tension between them.
Encouraging Participatory Planning Processes.Deliberative Democracy: Essays on Reason and Politics. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, P & This would suggest that deliberative appeals to empathy and moral reasoning would need to meet the requirements of self-interest as rationalized by slave-owners.
Debating Deliberative Democracy explores the nature andvalue of deliberation, the feasibility and desirability ofconsensus on contentious issues, the implications of institutionalcomplexity and cultural diversity for democratic decision making,and the significance of voting and majority rule in deliberativearrangements.
The nine essays that follow represent the latest efforts of leading democratic theorists to tackle various problems of deliberative democracy.
All the contributions address tensions that arise between reason and politics in a democracy inspired by the ideal of achieving reasoned agreement among free Price: $ This article provides a case study of deliberative forums concerned with animal protection issues.
It is argued that, whilst the deliberative exercises reviewed had relatively little impact on policy makers, there was some evidence of an attitude shift amongst the participants, and these tended to be in the direction of support for greater protection for animals.
Read "Communication, reason, and deliberative democracy, Journal of Communication" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips. The anthology opens with four key essays - by Jon Elster, Jurgen Habermas, Joshua Cohen, and John Rawls - that helped establish the current inquiry into deliberative models of democracy/5(1).