It is essentially a short introduction to the argument presented in the second Critique. Kant lived and wrote during a period in European intellectual history called the "Enlightenment. The central metaphor of the Enlightenment was a notion of the light of reason dispelling the darkness of mythology and misunderstanding. Enlightenment thinkers like Kant felt that history had placed them in the unique position of being able to provide clear reasons and arguments for their beliefs.
Chapter 1 Summary The one thing in the world that is unambiguously good is the "good will. By contrast, a good will is intrinsically good--even if its efforts fail to bring about positive results.
It is a principle of the composition of natural organisms that each of their purposes is served by the organ or faculty most appropriate to that purpose. The highest purposes of each individual are presumably self-preservation and the attainment of happiness.
Reason does not appear to be as well suited as instinct for these purposes. Indeed, people with a refined capacity for reason are often less happy than the masses. As a result, refined people often envy the masses, while common people view reason with contempt.
The fact is that reason serves purposes that are higher than individual survival and private happiness. Reason's function is to bring about a will that is good in itself, as opposed to good for some particular purpose, such as the attainment of happiness.
The specific obligations of a good will are called "duties. First, actions are genuinely good when they are undertaken for the sake of duty alone. People may act in conformity with duty out of some interest or compulsion other than duty. For instance, a grocer has a duty to offer a fair price to all customers, yet grocers abide by this duty not solely out of a sense of duty, but rather because the competition of other grocers compels them to offer the lowest possible price.
Similarly, all people have a duty to help others in distress, yet many people may help others not out of a sense of duty, but rather because it gives them pleasure to spread happiness to other people.
A more genuine example of duty would be a person who feels no philanthropic inclination, but who nonetheless works to help others because he or she recognizes that it is a duty to do so.
The second proposition is that actions are judged not according to the purpose they were meant to bring about, but rather by the "maxim" or principle that served as their motivation.
This principle is similar to the first. When someone undertakes an action with no other motivation than a sense of duty, they are doing so because they have recognized a moral principle that is valid a priori.
By contrast, if they undertake an action in order to bring about a particular result, then they have a motivation beyond mere duty. The third proposition, also related to the first two, is that duties should be undertaken out of "reverence" for "the law.
Chance events could bring about positive results. But only a rational being can recognize a general moral law and act out of respect for it. The "reverence" for law that such a being exhibits this is explained in Kant's footnote is not an emotional feeling of respect for the greatness of the law.
Rather, it is the moral motivation of a person who recognizes that the law is an imperative of reason that transcends all other concerns and interests.
Since particular circumstances and motivations cannot be brought into the consideration of moral principles, the moral "law" cannot be a specific stipulation to do or not do this or that particular action.
Rather, the moral law must be applicable in all situations. Thus the law of morality is that we should act in such a way that we could want the maxim the motivating principle of our action to become a universal law.Kant developed his moral philosophy in three works: Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals (), Critique of Practical Reason (), and Metaphysics of Morals ().
In Groundwork, Kant' tries to convert our everyday, obvious, rational  knowledge of morality into philosophical knowledge. Through his discussion of morals in the Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals, Immanuel Kant explores the question of whether a human being is capable of acting solely out of pure duty and if our actions hold true moral value.
IMMANUEL KANT Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals translatedandeditedby MARY GREGOR and Transition from popular moral philosophy to the metaphysics of morals 21 Third section: Transition from the metaphysics of morals to the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals Immanuel Kant Frontmatter More .
Kant's three major works are often considered to be the starting points for different branches of modern philosophy: the Critique of Pure Reason () for the philosophy of mind; the Critique of Practical Reason () for moral philosophy; and the Critique of Judgment () for aesthetics, the philosophy of art.
Choose from 37 different sets of Grounding Metaphysics Morals Kant flashcards on Quizlet. Philosophy Final- Kant's Grounding for Metaphysics.
A Priori. A Posteriori. Analytic. Synthetic.
Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Moral by Immanuel Kant. Chapter 1. A summary of Chapter 3 in Immanuel Kant's Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals and what it means.
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