These questions can also be used for short answer responses, research tasks, homework and revision activities. If you would like to suggest a question for this page, please contact Alpha History. The world before 1. Explain why nationalism was a significant force in 19th century Germany.
Used by permission of the publisher. For personal use and not for further distribution. Please submit permission requests for other uses directly to the museum editorial staff. Technology and the weapons of war by A. Life on the Western Front One of the saddest facts about World War I is that millions died needlessly because military and civilian leaders were slow to adapt their old-fashioned strategies and tactics to the new weapons of New technology made war more horrible and more complex than ever before.
The United States and other countries felt the effects of the war for years afterwards. The popular image of World War I is soldiers in muddy trenches and dugouts, living miserably until the next attack. This is basically correct. Technological developments in engineering, metallurgy, chemistry, and optics had produced weapons deadlier than anything known before.
The power of defensive weapons made winning the war on the western front all but impossible for either side. They had to cut through belts of barbed wire before they could use rifles, bayonets, pistols, and hand grenades to capture enemy positions.
A victory usually meant they had seized only a few hundred yards of shell-torn earth at a terrible cost in lives. Wounded men often lay helpless in the open until they died. Those lucky enough to be rescued still faced horrible sanitary conditions before they could be taken to proper medical facilities.
Between attacks,the snipers, artillery, and poison gas caused misery and death. Airplanesproducts of the new technology, were primarily made of canvas, wood, and wire.
At first they were used only to observe enemy troops. As their effectiveness became apparent, both sides shot planes down with artillery from the ground and with rifles, pistols, and machine guns from other planes. The Allies soon armed their airplanes the same way, and war in the air became a deadly business.
These light, highly maneuverable fighter planes attacked each other in wild air battles called dogfights. Pilots who were shot down often remained trapped in their falling, burning planes, for they had no parachutes. Airmen at the front did not often live long.
Germany also used its fleet of huge dirigibles, or zeppelins, and large bomber planes to drop bombs on British and French cities. Britain retaliated by bombing German cities.
Back on the ground, the tank proved to be the answer to stalemate in the trenches. This British invention used American-designed caterpillar tracks to move the armored vehicle equipped with machine guns and sometimes light cannon. Tanks worked effectively on firm, dry ground, in spite of their slow speed, mechanical problems, and vulnerability to artillery.
Able to crush barbed wire and cross trenches, tanks moved forward through machine gun fire and often terrified German soldiers with their unstoppable approach. Chemical warfare first appeared when the Germans used poison gas during a surprise attack in Flanders, Belgium, in At first, gas was just released from large cylinders and carried by the wind into nearby enemy lines.
Later, phosgene and other gases were loaded into artillery shells and shot into enemy trenches. The Germans used this weapon the most, realizing that enemy soldiers wearing gas masks did not fight as well.
All sides used gas frequently by Its use was a frightening development that caused its victims a great deal of suffering, if not death. Both sides used a variety of big guns on the western front, ranging from huge naval guns mounted on railroad cars to short-range trench mortars.
The result was a war in which soldiers near the front were seldom safe from artillery bombardment.The Art of War by Sun Zi Essay - The Art of War written by Sun Zi is the first book of war tactics in the world.
Nearly every war in ancient China would apply the tactics in The Art of War. Many different things such as the black plague, changes in warfare, and increasing power of nobility caused the decline of feudalism. One of the reasons that feudalism ended was the black plague.
The black plague was a bacterial infection that passed throughout Europe killing many people.
For this and a variety of other reasons, leaders outside of Europe could not match Europe’s innovations in warfare innovation. The huge sums of money showered on fighting in Europe gave military leaders the flexibility to buy new weapons and battleships and try out new tactics, fortifications, and methods of .
Did alliances alone compel European nations to war after June – or were other factors involved? 9. Many historians suggest that the ‘failure of diplomacy’ led to war in What attempts did European diplomats make to negotiate and avoid war, and why did these attempts fail?
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