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Specifically, a detection and tracking method which precisely describes a handwriting sample as a plurality of features which become indicators of a medical disorder affecting fine motor skills.
The indicators are obtained and characterized using analytical and statistical techniques resulting in the development of diagnostic tools for detection and management of that disorder.
Provisional Patent Application Ser. This application is also related to U. Field of the Invention The field of the invention relates generally to medical diagnostic tools and more particularly to the use of comparative handwriting analysis in the assessment of conditions which affect fine motor skills such as neurological disorders.
Background Information In providing medical care, the ability to diagnosis and monitor characteristic features of a condition is crucial to the management of that condition. For example, early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease can lead to early therapeutic intervention, the effectiveness of which requires continual monitoring and assessment.
Often the diagnosis of a neurological disorder, for example, only occurs awhile after the initial onset of the disease, because the outward manifestations of the disease may begin subtly and progress only slowly over time.
Affected individuals may be oblivious to gradually progressive changes in neurological functioning while early detection and intervention may delay or prevent the worsening of functions or of the underlying disorder. Additionally, even after detection, continuous monitoring is generally needed in order to assess the effectiveness of interventions and the progress of the underlying disease.
For conditions which affect fine motor skills such as neurological diseases and myopathic disease, changes in handwriting frequently are observed. For instance, with the onset of aging or a neurological disorder, the handwriting of a subject alters and in general deteriorates.
Properly correlated to known benchmarks, handwriting can be used as an indicator of the onset of neurological disorders or non-neurological disorders which affect fine motor skills, and can be used to track progress of these disorders.
For example, it has been observed that with the onset of Alzheimer's disease, there is increased frequency in the lifting, wavering, or constriction of pen-stroke.
Similarly, it has been noted that early symptoms of Parkinson's disease can include rigidity and resistance to movement.
Such symptoms however slight can manifest themselves in handwriting. Though early indications of this sort may be indiscernible by human analysis, such indicators can be detected through, for example, the use of computer enhancement and computer handwriting analysis.
Since these types of disorders are often progressive, by noting trends in the changes in certain features of handwriting over a long period of time, early detection of the onset of these types of conditions and the clinical progression of these conditions can be achieved.
Features in handwriting such as character topology, dimensions, spacing, proportions and ratios, skew, stroke curvature, line continuity, to name just a few, can be objectively quantified and described.
What have graphologists discovered is that the existence of particular breaks in writing, as well as minor interruptions in the up and down stroke (specifically in those letters that contain loops) tend to be indicators of a heart disease. Claw in handwriting analysis Watch out for this in the writing; it indicates the writer’s tendency to cheat. It is important that for the stroke to qualify as a claw, it has to come down and curve gently towards the left, rising up with a smooth curve as shown in the picture below. Parkinson’s disease is a good example. like whether a person loops the tail end of a lowercase d. Some analyses go even deeper. Kathi McKnight, a self-proclaimed expert in handwriting analysis, has found certain illnesses do crop up in the letters. Schizophrenia, for instance, features some letters that stand tall and others that like to.
Using analytical and statistical techniques, handwriting features from an individual can then be compared to specific handwriting features known to be indicators of a disorder affecting fine motor skill.
This information can be used as a diagnostic assessment tool in the detection and management of that disorder. Unfortunately, matching handwriting features and quantifying the differences between matched features is conventionally a very time consuming and laborious activity involving highly skilled technicians reviewing samples under microscopes.
In one embodiment, handwriting samples are transformed by computer software into mathematical graphs consisting of edges and vertices that represent specifications of the handwriting such as letter form topology and proportions, relationship among the sample's internal features, sequence of pen strokes, and strength of these strokes.THE EFFECTS OF DUAL TASKING ON HANDWRITING IN PATIENTS WITH PARKINSON’S DISEASE S.
NACKAERTS, * A. NIEUWBOER, B. C. M. SMITS-ENGELSMAN, bS. P. SWINNEN AND E. HEREMANSa a Neuromotor Rehabilitation Research Group, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, Tervuursevest , bus.
Objectives: Previous research suggested that people with Parkinson’s disease are able to increase handwriting stroke size up to cm without an increase of stroke duration; whereas age matched individuals in normal health are able to modulate stroke size without changes in stroke duration for sizes up to 2 cm.
This study was designed to test this finding by examining whether sizes larger. Kinematic analysis of handwriting movements in patients with Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment, depression and healthy subjects.
Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 15, – If handwriting sonification helps for the diagnosis of specific handwriting difficulties, it might also be a useful tool for the diagnosis of other movement disorders that affect handwriting.
For this purpose, handwriting sonification of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) is currently investigated. The study of handwriting analysis is known as graphology.
Graphology relies on the expressive nature of a person's handwriting as a means of gaining insight into Reviews: 1.
Graphology is the study of handwriting; rather, its an analysis to determine the writer's persona and traits or even their abilities and ashio-midori.com say your style of writing can show more than personality traits o,o And this study is not useless, its used in medical field often in diagnosis on disease .