Next Writing a bibliography A bibliography is a list of all the sources that you used to make your eportfolio. This includes all books, magazines, newspapers, websites, interviews and TV programmes. There is a standard way of laying them out that you MUST follow. Author - put the last name first.
Recommended Resources Writing a Bibliography and Documenting Historical Research An important element of writing in history and the social sciences is listing the sources of information used in the research.
Many writers find documenting research and preparing bibliographies to be unpleasant tasks. Reference notes and source lists can be viewed as tedious listings of authors, titles, editors, and dates of publication that intrude on the actual effort of writing a paper.
Proper citation, however, is important as it demonstrates credibility of the historian's methods and analyses. Proper citation documents the evidence historians use as they interpret the past.
Further, extensively documented research helps other scholars advance knowledge. Finally, proper citation gives credit where credit is due. When making any claims, statements, or interpretations, historians are obligated to give credit to their sources of knowledge.
In a way, when we give proper citation, we are acknowledging our debt of gratitude to others who have advanced our own understanding of the past.
This section is intended to help writers become more familiar with the correct rules for documenting historical research and creating a proper bibliography. It includes some of the more common types of sources that a writer may need to cite such as primary source letters, books, newspaper, film, web sites, etc.
For a complete list of rules and forms for citing sources, refer to one of the stylebooks or manuals referenced at the end of this section. It may be helpful at this point to review the terms for the types of sources used and the different modes of citing them. Which is a more reliable or accurate source of information?
Primary versus Secondary Sources. A primary source is an item or a document that comes directly from the person, subject or time period that is being studied.
It is a record of a topic as it is first described, without any interpretation or commentary. For example, if the topic is Thomas Jefferson, primary sources would include letters he had written, clothes he had worn, a portrait of him made during his lifetime, or newspaper articles about him during his lifetime.
For the subject of slavery, primary sources would include items made by slaves, slave diaries, writings about slavery written by people who lived during that time period, legal documents about slavery, pamphlets for slave auctions, and paintings of slave life from that time period. A secondary source, contrasted with primary sources, offers interpretation or commentary on a subject.
Secondary sources analyze, review, and interpret primary sources. Secondary sources about Thomas Jefferson would include biographies written about him and encyclopedia entries about him For slavery, secondary sources would include textbooks and articles about slaves or slavery, biographies of slaves or of people related to the topic of slavery, and contemporary paintings of slave life.
Interestingly, secondary sources, may sometimes be used as primary sources. For example, a 19th century biography of Thomas Jefferson might be considered a primary source for studying 19th century biographical writing.
Or, a contemporary painting of slave life might be used as a primary source for interpreting 21st century art form. What is more reliable and important source of information, a primary source or a secondary source? What happens when sources contradict one another? Secondary sources provide interpretive contexts, and are written with certain questions in mind.
Indeed, questions historians ask frame the research project, and influence the interpretive lenses through which historians view primary sources. Historians learn how to make interpretations that account for conflicting views.
Rather than simply explaining all viewpoints when sources differ, historians embrace the complexity of different viewpoints when they make their interpretations. Purists believe that all interest sources should be considered secondary sources.
However, there is a growing feeling that a true scan of an image or an unaltered transcription of a document found on the Internet may be cited as a primary source.
When claiming an online source as a primary document, list the source of the web page in addition to the electronic address. For example, if the document was found on a National Parks site, note that in the citation. Bibliographies and Notes A bibliography is a listing of all the sources used when researching a paper.How to cite sources in the text.
In-text citations alert readers to cited material and tell them exactly where to go and look. These citations work in conjunction with a bibliography. Usually, an in-text citation is a combination of a name (usually the author’s) and a number (either a year, a page number, or both).
Still, if your professor requires you to write an annotated bibliography in MLA style, here are a few tips to keep in mind: Use double spaces. Adjust your bibliographic list to alphabetical order by author’s name. Automatic Bibliography Maker Build a bibliography or works cited page the easy way My Papers NEW There are other styles, such as APA format and Chicago, but this citation style is often used for literature, language, liberal arts, Smith, John.
“Internet.” Encyclopedia Britannica, The second type of citation is the more detailed version of the reference. This appears at the end of an essay or paper.
It includes all of the information about the source, including the author, title, page numbers, and date of publication. Our MLA guides are based on the 8th edition of the MLA Handbook () available in the library.. Looking for the old MLA Style? We also have our MLA Style Quick Guide for the previous, 7th edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers ().
How to Write a Bibliography for Internet Sources Click here to run a free scan for system related errors Level of difficulty: Easy There are different formats that you have to follow in citing references for a bibliography on a term paper or an article.