Writing a good abstract is a formidable undertaking and many novice researchers wonder how it is possible to condense months of work into to words. Nevertheless, creating a well-written abstract is a skill that can be learned and mastering the skill will increase the probability that your research will be selected for presentation. The first rule of writing abstracts is to know the rules.
Format for the paper Edit your paper! A standard format is used for these articles, in which the author presents the research in an orderly, logical manner. This doesn't necessarily reflect the order in which you did or thought about the work.
The title should be appropriate for the intended audience. The title usually describes the subject matter of the article: Effect of Smoking on Academic Performance" Sometimes a title that summarizes the results is more effective: The person who did the work and wrote the paper is generally listed as the first author of a research paper.
For published articles, other people who made substantial contributions to the work are also listed as authors. An abstract, or summary, is published together with a research article, giving the reader a "preview" of what's to come.
Such abstracts may also be published separately in bibliographical sources, such as Biologic al Abstracts. They allow other scientists to quickly scan the large scientific literature, and decide which articles they want to read in depth. The abstract should be a little less technical than the article itself; you don't want to dissuade your potent ial audience from reading your paper.
Your abstract should be one paragraph, of words, which summarizes the purpose, methods, results and conclusions of the paper. It is not easy to include all this information in just a few words.
Start by writing a summary that includes whatever you think is important, and then gradually prune it down to size by removing unnecessary words, while still retaini ng the necessary concepts. Don't use abbreviations or citations in the abstract.
It should be able to stand alone without any footnotes. Why is it interesting? The introduction summarizes the relevant literature so that the reader will understand why you were interested in the question you asked. One to fo ur paragraphs should be enough. End with a sentence explaining the specific question you asked in this experiment.
How did you answer this question? There should be enough information here to allow another scientist to repeat your experiment. Look at other papers that have been published in your field to get some idea of what is included in this section.
If you had a complicated protocol, it may helpful to include a diagram, table or flowchart to explain the methods you used. Do not put results in this section. You may, however, include preliminary results that were used to design the main experiment that you are reporting on. Mention relevant ethical considerations.
If you used human subjects, did they consent to participate.
If you used animals, what measures did you take to minimize pain? This is where you present the results you've gotten. Use graphs and tables if appropriate, but also summarize your main findings in the text.
First, write your paper. While the abstract will be at the beginning of your paper, it should be the last section that you write. Once you have completed the final draft of your psychology paper, use it as a guide for writing your abstract.; Begin your abstract on a new page and place your running head and the page number 2 in the top right-hand corner. If you want to find out more about writing a critique or a review of a work, see the UNC Writing Center handout on writing a literature review. If you are unsure which type of abstract you should write, ask your instructor (if the abstract is for a class) or read other abstracts in your field or in the journal where you are submitting your article. HOW TO WRITE AN ABSTRACT: Tips and Samples Leah Carroll, Ph.D., Director, Office of Undergraduate Research An abstract is a short summary of your completed research.
Do NOT discuss the results or speculate as to why something happened; t hat goes in th e Discussion. You don't necessarily have to include all the data you've gotten during the semester. This isn't a diary.
Use appropriate methods of showing data. Don't try to manipulate the data to make it look like you did more than you actually did.
If you present your data in a table or graph, include a title describing what's in the table "Enzyme activity at various temperatures", not "My results".
For graphs, you should also label the x and y axes. Don't use a table or graph just to be "fancy". If you can summarize the information in one sentence, then a table or graph is not necessary.
Highlight the most significant results, but don't just repeat what you've written in the Results section.Why a Scientific Format? The scientific format may seem confusing for the beginning science writer due to its rigid structure which is so different from writing in the humanities.
One reason for using this format is that it is a means of efficiently communicating scientific findings to the broad community of scientists in a . Earlier articles offered suggestions on how to write a good case report, and how to read, write, or review a paper on randomized controlled trials.[2,3] The present paper examines how authors may write a good abstract when preparing their manuscript for a scientific journal or conference presentation.
Although the primary target of this paper is the .
HOW TO WRITE A RESEARCH ABSTRACT Qualities of a Good Abstract Well developed paragraphs are unified, coherent, concise, and able to stand alone Read the abstract; read the article. Pick the best ones, the examples where the abstract makes the article easier to read, and figure out how they do it.
Psychosomatic Medicine, founded in , is the official organ of the American Psychosomatic Society. It publishes experimental and clinical studies dealing with various aspects of the relationships among social, psychological, and behavioral factors and bodily processes in humans and animals.
It is an international, interdisciplinary journal devoted to experimental and clinical investigation. Here are some very successful sample abstracts from a range of different disciplines written by advanced undergraduate students.
Notice that while all of them are strong, interesting, and convincing, each one was written at a . Bought a 5 page english paper. The writer followed the instructions on what to write for each paragraph.
But totally ignored the " don't summarize the story" instruction, and there were many faulty sentences.