Introduction Criminology is not an old science; nevertheless it is possible to say that the steps of its creation started long before its official definition as a science. The necessity of this science is especially high nowadays when, the level of crime has risen immensely in every corner of the planet. The attempt to explain the human behavior has already become a priority for many scientists all over the world. The rich socio-historical experience of the humanity in the past gives an additional opportunity for adequate understanding of modern criminology and the problems solved by the given branch of knowledge.
Hence, there is a chemical need to remove hydrogen peroxide in a very rapid rate. In order to avoid this toxicity, the enzyme Catalase is present in sufficient quantities in the cells.
Catalase binds with the substrate molecules though their active sites and catalyses by processing them to form the ultimate by-products of water and oxygen, at a rapid rate as it has high turnover numbers.
Every 2 molecules of hydrogen peroxide is broken down into 2 molecules of water and one molecule of oxygen, which are released as the by-products.
This is a simple reaction and proceeds as follows: According to the Michaelis-Menton mechanism, there are three principal features of many enzyme catalysed reactions and they are as follows: For a given initial concentration of substrate, [S]0, the initial rate of product formation is proportional to the total concentration of enzyme [E]0.
For a given [E]0 and low values of [S]0, the rate of product formation is proportional to [S]0. For a given [E]0 and high values of [S]0, the rate of product formation becomes independent of [S]0, reaching a maximum value known as the maximum velocity, V max.
An intensive metabolic activity can be found in soaked pea seeds as they begin to germinate. Hence, their catalytic activity is at higher levels. When a small quantity of hydrogen peroxide is added to it, the enzyme Catalase present in the soaked pea seeds breaks down them into water and oxygen, producing froth due to the release of oxygen gas.
This released oxygen can be measured in order to study the enzyme activity. Method of changing the independent variable 1. Prepare 6 different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in gradual increments, taking the standard low concentration of hydrogen peroxide used in the pilot study as defined in STEP B, POINT 1 as the lowest concentration in the gradually increasing scale.
Method of measuring dependant variable 1. Conduct a pilot study to check acceptable concentrations of hydrogen peroxide for the investigation by measuring the quantity of oxygen evolved from a reaction in which a low concentration of hydrogen peroxide is treated with 3 parts lesser quantity of the enzyme Catalase.
Record the quantity of oxygen evolved and during a standard time. The quantities of enzyme and substrate used in this reaction will act as the standard. Crush suitable quantity of pea seeds that will give the standard low concentration of hydrogen peroxide as used in the pilot study, into a coarse powder and load same quantity of the powder into 6 different test tubes closed test tubes by crushing more pea seeds as many times as the no.
Implementation of practical work 1. All these reactions must be carried out in a temperature controlled environment, at a constant temperature and pH, as per the requirements of the Catalase enzyme for its reaction with hydrogen peroxide for breaking it into hydrogen and oxygen.
This can be accomplished by using a heating block to carry out individual reactions for a standard amount of time.
The test tubes used must be of sealed type with a provision for inserting the probe of a suitable oxygen detector into it. This way, the escape of evolved oxygen can be prevented and thus the quantity of oxygen released can be measured more accurately.
A stopwatch or any similar device can be used to monitor the time of reaction.Biological Basis Of Behavior - Biological Basis Of Behavior Primary Behaviors of Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is defined as a "devastating psychotic disorder that may involve characteristic disturbances in thinking (delusions), perception (hallucinations), speech, emotions, and .
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