Background[ edit ] Throughout U. This treaty entailed that Mexico cede over half its land to the United States in exchange for 15 million dollars but also guaranteed that Mexican citizens living in ceded lands would retain full property rights and would be granted United States citizenship if they remained in the ceded lands for at least one year. Carrigan and Clive Webb estimate that at least Mexicans were lynched between and  of which 64 were lynched in areas which lacked a formal judicial system.
Severe worldwide economic downturn that intensified anti-immigrant nativism within the United States Date: Immigration was a thorny issue during the Depression.
Legislation was already in place barring certain ethnic groups from entering the United States, and immigration remained restricted during the era owing to economic factors. Many refugees fleeing Nazi persecution were denied entrance to the United States because of ethnic quotas.
The first legislation directed against a specific ethnic group, the Chinese Exclusion Act ofprohibited the entry of Chinese laborers into the United States, and it was not until that the act was repealed. With the passage of the Immigration Act of and the opening of Ellis Island the following year, the federal government assumed full control over immigration, and the United States continued its restrictive immigration and naturalization policy.
The Immigration Act of banned immigration from most Asian countries and introduced a literacy test for all immigrants over the age of sixteen. The Immigration Acts of and significantly limited immigration fromsouthern and eastern Europe by assigning a quota for each nationality based on past U.
Inthe year of the stock market crash that precipitated the Depression, the national origins system established by the Immigration Act of went into effect. Canadians and Latin Americans were exempt from the quota system.
With its proximity to the United States, Mexico supplied thousands of both legal and undocumented workers to labor on farms and ranches and in construction and mining in the Midwest and Southwest.
These immigrants joined Mexican Americans, some of whom were descendants of Mexicans who had entered the United States following the MexicanWar of At the time of the Depression, several hundred thousand people of Mexican ancestry were living in the United States.
As the Depression deepened, government authorities determined that the expense would be less to return Mexicans to Mexico than to keep them on the welfare program. With the cooperation of the Mexican government, the United States repatriated about one-half million Mexicans between and Some of the people sent back to Mexico were actually U.
Indicative of their historical pattern of immigration and deportation, Mexicans were welcomed back to the United States a decade later, when they were invited to fill the gaps in the American workforce as the United States mobilized for World War II.
Dust Bowl conditions in the Plains states of the Midwest sent many poor American farmers on the road to find agricultural work in the Far West.
The resulting influx of migrant American workers severely limited the number of jobs available for foreign workers.
Roosevelt became president inhe made no significant changes in the immigration policy he inherited from his predecessor, Herbert Hoover. As the Depression wore on, immigration into the United States declined significantly.
The average annual number of immigrants for was 6,—a mere trickle compared to the 1. Despite the decrease in immigration, however, public sentiment against immigrants, particularly Filipinos, continued to increase. Proclaimed by federal courts as American nationals following the Spanish-American War inwhen the Philippines became a U.
The Tydings- McDuffie Act of provided for Philippine independence in ten years but actually delayed until and also conferred alien status on Filipinos residing in the United States. The legislation created an annual quota of fifty immigrants per year. During World War II, thousands of Jewish refugees fled Nazi persecution, and a number of them were refused asylum in the United States because of its restrictionist immigration policy.
At the time, the United States made no distinction between immigrants and refugees; thus, both groups were subject to immigration quotas.
The United States did not pursue a rescue policy for Jewish victims until Hurd Further Reading Chomsky, Aviva. In debunking the most common misconceptions about immigration, Chomsky provides informative discussions on history, law, and racism.
Daniels examines individual racial groups entering the United States, their patterns of immigration, and the reactions of U. The New Case Against Immigration: Both Legal and Illegal.
Krikorian argues that since economic, societal, and even technological changes in the United States hinder the assimilation of immigrants, the United States should permanently reduce immigration. The Debate over the Changing Face of America.
Contains a wide variety of opinions on immigration from the standpoints of politics, economics, and race and ethnicity. The Great Depression and the New Deal:While many remember the Great Depression as a time of terrible trials for Americans, few understand the hardships faced by Mexicans and Mexican Americans in the U.S.
This paper examines the experiences of Mexicans in America during the Great Depression and explores the devastating impact of. In February in San Antonio, Texas, Mexicans and Mexican Americans gathered at the city's railroad station to depart the United States for settlement in Mexico.
In August, a special train carried another to central Mexico. Related Documents: Mexican Americans and Immigrants During the Great Depression Essay great depression Essay or have learned something about the great depression and the effects it had on the United States. World War II agricultural labor shortages drew more Mexican Americans and Mexican immigrants to the region.
of Mexicans to enter the United States in the years from to the outbreak of the Great Depression in Erasmo. “Mexican Labor and World WA II: Braceros in the Pacific Northwest, A Photographic Essay.”. Mexican Americans and Immigrants During the Great Depression Essay Words May 5th, 11 Pages The U.S.
is known as a land of opportunity and has always attracted many peoples from different parts of the world. The Mexican Repatriation was a mass deportation of Mexicans and Mexican-Americans from the United States between and Estimates of how many were repatriated range from , to 2,, Estimates of how many were repatriated range from , to 2,,