Contact Author Introduction Throughout 19th-century Europe, political and economic forces helped to dramatically alter the European continent in a manner that forever changed the countries and people that inhabited them. In less than a century, the absolutist ideals of the Old Regime started to wither away as revolutionary ideals of freedom and democracy attempted to take hold across Europe.
A mosaic showing Alexander the Great battling Darius III The Hellenic civilisation was a collection of city-states or poleis with different governments and cultures that achieved notable developments in government, philosophy, science, mathematics, politics, sports, theatre and music.
Athens was a powerful Hellenic city-state and governed itself with an early form of direct democracy invented by Cleisthenes ; the citizens of Athens voted on legislation and executive bills themselves. Athens was the home of Socrates Platoand the Platonic Academy. By the late 6th century BC, all the Greek city states in Asia Minor had been incorporated into the Persian Empirewhile the latter had made territorial gains in the Balkans such as MacedonThracePaeoniaetc.
In the course of the 5th century BC, some of the Greek city states attempted to overthrow Persian rule in the Ionian Revoltwhich failed.
This sparked the first Persian invasion of mainland Greece. At some point during the ensuing Greco-Persian Warsnamely during the Second Persian invasion of Greeceand precisely after the Battle of Thermopylae and the Battle of Artemisiumalmost all of Greece to the north of the Isthmus of Corinth had been overrun by the Persians,  but the Greek city states reached a decisive victory at the Battle of Plataea.
With the end of the Greco-Persian wars, the Persians were eventually decisively forced to withdraw from their territories in Europe. The Greco-Persian Wars and the victory of the Greek city states directly influenced the entire further course of European history and would set its further tone.
The Peloponnesian Wars ensued, and the Peloponnesian League was victorious. Subsequently, discontent with Spartan hegemony led to the Corinthian War and the defeat of Sparta at the Battle of Leuctra.
Hellenic infighting left Greek city states vulnerable, and Philip II of Macedon united the Greek city states under his control. The son of Philip II, known as Alexander the Greatinvaded neighboring Persiatoppled and incorporated its domains, as well as invading Egypt and going as far off as Indiaincreasing contact with people and cultures in these regions that marked the beginning of the Hellenistic period.
After the death of Alexander, his empire split into multiple kingdoms ruled by his generals, the Diadochi. The Diadochi fought against each other only three major kingdoms remained: Ptolemaic Egyptthe Seleucid Empire and Macedonia kingdom. These kingdoms spread Greek culture to regions as far away as Bactria.
First governed by kingsthen as a senatorial republic the Roman RepublicRome finally became an empire at the end of the 1st century BC, under Augustus and his authoritarian successors.
The Roman Empire at its greatest extent in AD, under the emperor Trajan The Roman Empire had its centre in the Mediterranean, controlling all the countries on its shores; the northern border was marked by the Rhine and Danube rivers.
In the 4th century, the emperors Diocletian and Constantine were able to slow down the process of decline by splitting the empire into a Western part with a capital in Rome and an Eastern part with the capital in Byzantium, or Constantinople now Istanbul.
Whereas Diocletian severely persecuted Christianity, Constantine declared an official end to state-sponsored persecution of Christians in with the Edict of Milanthus setting the stage for the Church to become the state church of the Roman Empire in about Decline of the Roman Empire[ edit ] Main articles: Gibbon said that the adoption of Christianity, meant belief in a better life after death, and therefore made people lazy and indifferent to the present.
Bowersock has remarked,  "we have been obsessed with the fall: Some other notable dates are the Battle of Adrianople inthe death of Theodosius I in the last time the Roman Empire was politically unifiedthe crossing of the Rhine in by Germanic tribes after the withdrawal of the legions to defend Italy against Alaric Ithe death of Stilicho infollowed by the disintegration of the western legions, the death of Justinian Ithe last Roman Emperor who tried to reconquer the west, inand the coming of Islam after Many scholars maintain that rather than a "fall", the changes can more accurately be described as a complex transformation.
Late Antiquity and Migration Period[ edit ] Main articles: Late Antiquity and Migration Period A simplified map of migrations from the 2nd to the 5th century. When Emperor Constantine had reconquered Rome under the banner of the cross inhe soon afterwards issued the Edict of Milan indeclaring the legality of Christianity in the Roman Empire.
In addition, Constantine officially shifted the capital of the Roman Empire from Rome to the Greek town of Byzantium, which he renamed Nova Roma- it was later named Constantinople "City of Constantine". In Theodosius Iwho had made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire, would be the last emperor to preside over a united Roman Empire.
The empire was split into two halves: The Western Roman Empire was repeatedly attacked by Germanic tribes see: Migration Periodand in finally fell to the Heruli chieftain Odoacer.
Over time, feudalism and manorialism arose, two interlocking institutions that provided for division of land and labor, as well as a broad if uneven hierarchy of law and protection.
These localised hierarchies were based on the bond of common people to the land on which they worked, and to a lord, who would provide and administer both local law to settle disputes among the peasants, as well as protection from outside invaders.
Unlike under Roman rule, with its standard laws and military across the empire and its great bureaucracy to administer them and collect taxes, each lord although having obligations to a higher lord was largely sovereign in his domain.
Tithes or rents were paid to the lord, who in turn owed resources, and armed men in times of war, to his lord, perhaps a regional prince. However, the levels of hierarchy were varied over time and place.
The western provinces soon were to be dominated by three great powers:Military Spending Patterns in History. Jari Eloranta, Appalachian State University Introduction.
Determining adequate levels of military spending and sustaining the burden of conflicts have been among key fiscal problems in history. Revolution and the growth of industrial society, – Developments in 19th-century Europe are bounded by two great events.
The French Revolution broke out in , and its effects reverberated throughout much of Europe for many decades. World War I began in Its inception resulted from many trends in European society, culture, and diplomacy during the late 19th century.
Century Developed Countries: A Descriptive and Econometric Analysis increased by a factor of during the 19th century. URBANISATION IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY DEVELOPED COUNTRIES countries (i.e. Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the USA) will also be .
Effects in the 18th/19th Century Industrialization refers to the development of machine production of goods and new energy resources.
Industrialization had many positive and negative effects on the citizens of Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries. Overview. Some of the best-known civilizations of prehistoric Europe were the Minoan and the Mycenaean, which flourished during the Bronze Age until they collapsed in a short period of time around BC..
The period known as classical antiquity began with the emergence of the city-states of Ancient ashio-midori.com ultimately checking the Persian advance in Europe . Why did both European and Asian populations migrate so often in the late 19th Century?
Why did so many Europeans emigrate to North America in the late 19th Century? Europeans: In Ireland there was a potato famine, many moved to the U.S.