Forms of relativism[ edit ] Anthropological versus philosophical relativism[ edit ] Anthropological relativism refers to a methodological stance, in which the researcher suspends or brackets his or her own cultural biases while attempting to understand beliefs and behaviors in their local contexts. An etic or outsider account is a description of a society by an observer, in terms that can be applied to other cultures; that is, an etic account is culturally neutral, and typically refers to the conceptual framework of the social scientist.
Happiness and Freedom in Socrates and Callicles Kristian Urstad Callicles holds a desire-fulfilment conception of happiness; it is something like, that is, the continual satisfaction of desires that constitutes happiness for him.
He claims that leading the happy life consists in having many desires, letting them grow as strong as possible and then being able to satisfy them e. For Callicles, this life of maximum pursuit of desires consists in a kind of absolute freedom, where there is very little practice of restraint; happiness consists of luxury, unrestraint, and freedom b-c.
The myths are introduced on the heels of a crucial discussion about temperance, an important traditional Greek virtue. Socrates clearly takes this, and the myths which follow, with the utmost seriousness, as he begs Callicles not to let up in any way, so that it may really become clear how one ought to live d.
A brief description of the two myths is in order. In the first one, Socrates speaks about those uninitiated ones in Hades who carry water into a leaky jar using a leaky sieve where the sieve is meant to be the soul.
And because they leak, he likens the souls of fools to sieves b-c.
In the second, he tells of two men, each of whom has many jars. The jars belonging to one of them are sound and full one with honey, another with milk, etc. It is also supposed that the sources of each of these things are scarce and so attainable only with much toil.
As for the other man, he too has the resources that can be attained, though with difficulty, but his jars are perforated and rotten. In these myths, Socrates might be said to be putting forward two very general warnings to the individual immersed in the licentious life, namely, that his desires are going to be 1 insatiable and 2 disruptive.
In regards to the former, he connects up the desires in the person living licentiously with leaky jars which are insatiable because they can never be filled b.
He reiterates this in the second myth calling the jars of the intemperate man leaky a. He says that the soul with these appetites in it is susceptible to persuasion and to swaying back and forth or general instability a.
Socrates paints a picture of the licentious individual as someone in a condition who is not able to procure satisfaction of his demanding desires since they are insatiable.
Since immediately upon satisfaction of his desires, they begin anew, this individual finds himself constantly running around; he cannot keep up with his desires and so is tired and frustrated and therefore unhappy b-d.
Let us now turn to the implications of the Disruption Warning in which Socrates speaks about the bad effects on the soul which have these insatiable desires in it. These effects are characterized as a kind of disruption of stability and as a general susceptibility on the part of soul to their persuasion or control a-c.
That Socrates means something like this when he speaks of these desires and their bad effects is perhaps reinforced by his earlier explication to Callicles about what it involves for someone, not to rule others, but to rule himself.
The supposition is that the licentious individual like Callicles thinks he is free in his pursuit of such desires but once he exposes himself to them he may become subjugated to certain internal effects largely beyond his control.
This, in my estimation, is a key moment in the discussion since in warning Callicles about the disruptive powers of certain desires on the soul, Socrates might be seen to be transferring the contrast between slavery and freedom from the outer into the inner world of the agent.
Thus it might be said that complete freedom, according to Socrates, not only involves adapting or restraining desires to suit external circumstances i. External Self-Sufficiency Criterionbut also avoiding the kinds of desires productive of internal disruption.
Let us call the latter then the Internal Self-Sufficiency Criterion.
That is, one will be internally self-sufficient to the extent that one abstains or is free from those desires productive of subjugating effects on the soul. Critobulus, Socrates claims, completely undermines the kind of power this kiss will have over him -he does not realize that he will lose his freedom and become a slave and end up doing all sorts of foolish things that not even a madman would care about 1.
Xenophon goes on to claim that Socrates had trained himself to avoid the fairest and most attractive people 1.Preface to the Home Education Series.
The educational outlook is rather misty and depressing both at home and abroad. That science should be a staple of education, that the teaching of Latin, of modern languages, of mathematics, must be reformed, that nature and handicrafts should be pressed into service for the training of the eye and hand, that boys and girls must learn to write English and.
The title of this discussion points to two different, albeit inter-related, questions: first, what role does culture play in moral development?; and second, what is the proper responsibility of a culture in guiding the moral growth of its members?
This paper does not systematically explore what the proper role of a culture is in the area of moral . In antiquity, pederasty was seen as an educational institution for the inculcation of moral and cultural values in some cultures, as well as a form of sexual expression.
Its practice dates from the Archaic period onwards in Ancient Greece, but Cretan ritual objects that reflect an already-formalised practice date to the late Minoan civilization, in around .
The Sophists (Ancient Greek) The sophists were itinerant professional teachers and intellectuals who frequented Athens and other Greek cities in the second half of the fifth century B.C.E. The Right Mistake: The Further Philosophical Investigations of Socrates Fortlow [Walter Mosley] on ashio-midori.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Living in South Central L.A., Socrates Fortlow is a sixty-year-old ex-convict, still strong enough to kill men with his bare hands. Now freed after serving twenty-seven years in prison.
Quotations "Philosophy may teach us to bear with equanimity the misfortunes of our neighbours" [Oscar Wilde The English Renaissance of Art] "Philosophy is a good horse in the stable, but an arrant jade on a journey" [Oliver Goldsmith The Good-Natur'd Man] "All good moral philosophy is but an handmaid to religion" [Francis Bacon The Advancement of Learning].